Rodindoi phanglimata mashkar Rromani kultura hai e niva tolmachimaski
Translation Romani
Studiyi Interpretimaske

O terno disiplino akademikosko interpetimaske studiyange, lashardo kasevestar rano ande l' bersh 1900to, si akana ande fatsa baryarimaski. Sar le Studiyi Tolmachimaske, e evolutsiya istorikalni interpretimaske  studiyange intregisaile katar ekh pervina bazime ande komentariyi hai obzervatsiyi pe praktsiya ka ekh mal interdisiplinariyo pherdi ku diferentni  teyoretikalni  hai empirikalni egzempliya, metodologiyi hai  modelurya. Chaches, interpretimos (vai  interpretatsiya) vi-akana hamin-pe thai len benefito katar azhutimasko rodimos an avre disiplinurya  sar sosyolingwistichi, saikolingwistichi, pragmatichi, diwanosko analizo, prindjarimaski sikologiya, gogyaki-sikologiya, mashkare-kulturalni komunikatsiya, shtiriyake siyentsiyi hai shtiriya falshivo, mashkar avrende.

But tsirkumstantsiyi hai sluchayimata azhutisarde te keren fundatsiya vash e mala.  Mai palorral katar le sesiyi kerdile katar o Paul Mantoux ando bersh 1919 kai Paris Peace Conference (Pachaki Konferentsiya la Paridjesko), E mai angluni gineratsiya sikade khetane interpretoryandar vash le konferentsiyi  interprpetorya (katar Mannheim thai Heidelberg) kamas-sikaven penge talenturya  ka l' Nuremburg Trials  (1945-1946)  (Krisa-Nuremburgoske), thai andre  le neve-kerde Natsiyi Maladine. Ande bersha le 1960to hai 1970to, o Otto Kade hai o "Leipzig School" (Leipzigaki Shkola) an o Nyamptsom thai o Ghelly Chernov thai  o "Soviet School" (Skola Sovyetiko) ande Rrusiya, kamas-anen lingwistikalni bazime Tolmachimaske studiyi hai sikolingwistichi, swakorro ando rrundo, pe l'studiyi interpretimaske. Ando Franzuzo, E Danica Seleskovitch hai a "Paris School" (Shkola Paridjesko), spesyalnones e École Supérieure d`Interprètes et de Traducteurs (ESIT), kamas-kerel  kursurya ande teyoriyi hai metodo thai-vi thol tele le kokala vash sikayvimos le interpretoryange ando Franzuzo. Kakale mai-anglune pasurya dine yakh mai-bares pe conference interpreting (interpretimos konferentsiyako) ando duplo khetane thai kobsekutivni modurya. Bare konferentsiyi ando 1986 (Trieste, Italiya), 1994 (Turku, Finlandiya), hai 1995 (Geneva Park, Kanada) chimentime mai but kakale kezdimata ande adkovasiya mai siyentifikalnone bazime rodimos empirikalno. Na-domultani kolaboratsiya  mashkar pramatni interpretimaske hai akademichonge sikadyas-pe te avel produktivno hai andyas non-Westikane akademikosko diwano importantni traditsiyi praktsiyake ande thema non-Westikane sar Japan, China and India (e Nipona, o Khitai thai e Indiya). Desar le bersha 1990to , o interpretimos ande prostonya servisoski naihiya, kadya si, kumunitetosko interpretimos, avelas fugasa mai importantno. Kakya bufli kategoriya anel andre interpretoriya kai interpretin vash le servisurya ande sastimaski grizha (truposko hai gogyako), ande shpitaliya, ande sudurya/krisa, ka l' range stansiyi,  kai imigratsiyake hai aziloske ashunimata, ande shkoli, hai ande but avre servisurya sosyalni. Lantsome pashunes kai parruyimata ande lumiyaki migratsiya, imigratsiya hai lokalni komuniteturya migrantonengo, komunitetosko interpretimos  lel pe peste treyabansa sosyolodjikalni thai pakivale, thi-vi o sikyayimos praktikalno te buflyaren le shaimata prindjarimaske hai talenturya. Kumpaniyaki interpretorya na ferdi ampochin shib hai kultura numa thai-vi ekh buflo dometo diferentni  sosyalni, etnikalni  hai rrasne tangimata, kai anel andre sosyetalni hai institutsiyalni stereotipurya hai dushmaniya. Rodimos ande interpretimaske studiyi ankliste kana thodimos ando than  programurya akademikoske tai-vi e publikatsiya literaturiyandar pe treyaba. Kakale dine yakh ginaralnones pe trin thana: prindjarimaske prochesimos, pramatni treyabi, hai sikayimata. Studiyi roden treyabi shibake ande relatsiya ka o prindjarimasko ladimos (Zumayimaske Modelurya), e bukyarne gogya interpretoryenge, hai gogyaki funktsiya hai astarimaske figuri kana interpretin-pe. Haznitoriyenge azhukerimata, evaluatsiya hai reyaktsiyi sar samnurya kalitatoske si avre  importantni thana rodimaske, thai-vi le sosyalni funktsiyi interpretoryenge ande kontektsturya diferentni, e direktsiya kai zhan le shiba, thai hamimos vai bi-hamimos kana interpretin-pe ande prostovi servisurya. Thai-vi e importantni si le geseske si le traditsiyonalne pharimata  hai chachimata kai azban o transferimos halyarimasko thai bishterimata. O 21to kenturya dikhlas ekh proferatsiya interpretimaske aktiviteto hai rodimos. Kakya anel andre signed language interpreting, diyalogo vai durikano interpretimos, video remote interpreting, vorbimos-vorbimaske  tolmachimaske sistemi hai buflyarimos aparatenge vash o kidemos datange hai analizo pe speech corpora (shibake korpurya). O strazimos hai spontaniteto  ando interpretimos  kai phiren interpretimasa  thai-vi arakhen neve formi ande do-shibange hai bute-shibange beshimata po-Interneto, katar zebava ka interpretoryeski azhutime pomozhala medikalni, kakale kai sigurones del but kai studiyi interpretimaske rodimos ande l' bersha te aven.

Referentsiyi:

Baigorri-Jalón, Jesús (2004), Interpreters at the United Nations: A History, Salamanca: Ediciones de la Universidad de Salamanca.

Baker, Mona and Gabriela Saldanha (eds), Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. 2nd Edition, London / New York: Routledge, 2009.

Gaiba, Francesca (1998), The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation: The Nuremberg Trial, Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Gambier, Yves and Luc Van Doorslaer (eds), Handbook of Translation Studies. Vol. 1, Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010. Also online. Translation Studies Bibliography Online (2004).

Hale, Sandra Beatriz (2007), Community Interpreting, Hampshire / New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pöchhacker, Franz (2004), Introducing Interpreting Studies, London / New York: Routledge.

Pöchhacker, Franz and Miriam Shlesinger (eds), The Interpreting Studies Reader, London / New York: Routledge, 2002.


Translation Romani

Kolkorro Rromano swato Other Romani Word
Te avel baxtalo tiro navesko ges. (Kalderash)
Bah(x)talo bijando djive!|Baxtalo rodjendan! (Gurbeti)
Baxtalo (a)rakhadyimasko dyes! (Lovari)
Baxtalo o bijando dive (Xoraxane)
 Happy Birthday (EN)  Feliz Aniversário (PT)  Joyeux anniversaire (FR)  Feliz cumpleaños (ES)  Alles Gute zum Geburtstag (DE)  Boldog születésnapot! (HU)  Buon compleanno (IT)  İyi ki doğdun (TR)  Šťastné narozeniny (CS)


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